Kier was the main contractor for this project. The contractor implemented BIMXtra, which was their own BIM management system to increase collaboration and integration within the team. The BIM software is a CDE, which consolidates information and data via a cloud based subscription service. Kier provided BIMXtra software free of charge in this project, which eliminated the need for expensive servers and systems. In BIMXtra, all information of the project was used for clash detection and coordination. Information from the BIM model was available directly to all subcontractors and fabricators for costing in an organized manner, which reduced double pricing or missing tasks.

Structural design changes were also done by BIM modeling. Structural engineers found out that the steel beams that were supporting the edge protection were not enough. They had to amend the design and construction process by fabricating the edge protection to be pre-installed to the steel beams before erection. Luckily, this was planned out during the design stage to avoid abortive works during construction.

Starting your own Professional Carpet Cleaning business offers you a wealth of benefits.
Did you ever wanted to start your own company, be your own boss and make money by yourself? The carpet cleaning business is good idea for a long term profit. You might think it is easy to clean carpets, but it is not so. There is certain specified knowledge about stain removal, general carpet cleaning and basic understanding of the limitations you equipment might have. You need to study these aspects carefully, before offering any service.

There are three general types of carpet cleaning:
      Dry foam carpet cleaning,
      Hybrid liquid extraction and
      The steam cleaning method

Each of these methods has its   pros and cons so if you want to offer a professional service then you’d better stick to all of them. Most of the cleaning companies out there use the carpet steam cleaning method, because it is the most effective one. Anyway if you want to start a carpet cleaning business, you will need a good plan and you must have money for start up, because the equipment will be vital for your success.
Picking a good equipment is probably the most important part of your business investment, so you should choose carefully. There are so many different types of cleaning equipment and maybe as many places to buy them. There are many sites about such equipment, some of them offer different types of discounts depending on your purchase. You will find a good discount for your starting business for sure.
After you get your equipment maybe it is time to start working. Oh wait, you will need clients. A great way to popularize your cleaning services is to offer it to your friends and relatives for a discounted price. It will also be a nice experience for you and a chance to correct mistakes that may come along your working. We all know that people like to talk about things that happen to them, especially if they were impressed. So this is a good way to spread the word and get clients.

 Carpet Cleaning Methods

Hot Water Extraction or ‘Steam’ Cleaning:

The term “ steam cleaning” is misleading since true steam is never used to clean carpets (the high temperature would do serious damage to carpet fibre and backing). Portable or truck-mounted equipment is used to spray hot water and detergent solution into the carpet pile at a high pressure and then is immediately extracted (vacuumed out) along with the suspended soil particles. Some machines may have rotary brushes or another agitating device to work the solution into the pile and loosen soil.

Factors that affect the results of this method are:

 • operator skill and knowledge
 • solution temperature
 • spray pressure
 • vacuum power
 • pre-spray: spraying solution on the carpet (particularly very soiled areas) some time before extracting

Notes: Some “truck-mounted” units are merely portable units bolted onto the truck. The best truck-mount machine would be powered by the truck’s engine and not your residential electric supply. These units tend to have stronger vacuums and remove more moisture than portable
units. Anytime a rotary brush is used the potential for carpet fibre damage exists if the type or use of the brush is incorrect.


In this method, detergent solution is released onto the carpet through openings in a rotary brush, whose rotary action converts the solution into foam and works it into the carpet. Once dry, vacuuming removes the residue containing loose, encapsulated soil. At times, chemicals may be added to the detergent solution to reduce odors, retard soiling, brighten colors and/or speed drying.
Notes: If the vacuuming is not done thoroughly and effectively, the residue left in the fibres can act as a soil magnet causing re-soiling very quickly.

Combination of Hot Water Extraction and Shampoo:

As the name implies, this method uses both Hot Water Extraction and Shampoo. This process is particularly effective for cleaning highly soiled carpets, with heavy oil/soil build -up, the process has two steps:
 • Shampoo using rotary brush to loosen soil
 • Hot Water Extraction using water rather than detergent solution to remove shampoo Some units may combine both steps. It is  usually more expensive because of added labor costs.
Notes: For residential cleaning, Hot Water Extraction on its own is usually enough to clean most carpets and rugs with pre-spotting of highly soiled areas as required.


A variation of ‘Shampoo’, Foam is generally applied onto the carpet, usually from aerosol containers, and worked into the carpet with a dry sponge. Once dry, the residue containing suspended soil is simply vacuumed away. Since foam uses little water, there is no danger of over-wetting and the connectedcomplications. For the same reason, this method is not as effective as the “wetter” methods!
Notes: Some foams may leave a residue that is difficult to remove, acts as a soil magnet and may causeproblems with subsequent wet cleaning.
Similar to ‘Shampoo’, Bonnet cleaning employs an absorbent pad (‘bonnet’) attached to the bottom of arotary machine. Detergent solution is sprayed onto the carpet then the rotary pad is used to agitate and remove the soil suspended in the solution from the carpet. Once one side of the pad gets soiled, the sides can be reversed. Some pads have special “scrubbing strips on them. When both sides get soiled, the pad can be replaced and later cleaned.
Spin Bonnet cleaning is often the preferred method in maintaining large commercial office buildings.

Absorbent Dry Compound:

A dry compound containing detergent/ solvent is sprinkled onto the carpet and worked into the pile using machines. The soil particles get encapsulated in the absorbent dry compound and are removed by vacuuming. Since this method does not use any “wet” process, there is no danger of over-wetting.

In-Plant Cleaning:

This type of cleaning is ideal for specialized cleaning of loose or valuable rugs. The rugs are sent through a duster that extracts soil more effectively than routine vacuuming. They are then washed and hung to dry in a controlled air environment. The cleaning company may also offer a special service for repair of valuable rugs, using special equipment.
Notes: Generally in-plant cleaning is more expensive than other methods. One possible way to reduce the cost would be to deliver and pick up your carpet. If you have a valuable rug, as many oriental rugs are, check the reputation and credentials of the cleaning company before entrusting them with your treasure.

      Commercial Carpet Cleaning Machine and Equipment's

      The Rotovac 360i Cleans Better With Less Effort
      The Rotovac 360i is a Patented Rotary Jet Extractor that utilizes rotary vacuum heads to thoroughly deep clean carpet with hundreds of multi-directional cleaning passes.  The 360i weighs only 39 lbs and is extremely easy to use as it operates in a self propelled side to side motion. Simply stated, “The 360i cleans better with less effort."


      Cleans better with less effort and leaves carpet drier than a wand
      Interchangeable heads for all type of Carpet and Tile Cleaning
      User friendly, weighs only 39lbs
      Telescoping handle for cleaning stairs and compact storage
      Durable Construction with Cast Aluminum and Stainless Steel Frame
      Unique Marketing Tool to land new accounts and generate referral business
      Industrially Engineered for Professional Use
      Made in the USA

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Structured design is a conceptualization of problem into several well-organized elements of solution. It is basically concerned with the solution design. Benefit of structured design is, it gives better understanding of how the problem is being solved. Structured design also makes it simpler for designer to concentrate on the problem more accurately.
Structured design is mostly based on ‘divide and conquer’ strategy where a problem is broken into several small problems and each small problem is individually solved until the whole problem is solved.
The small pieces of problem are solved by means of solution modules. Structured design emphasis that these modules be well organized in order to achieve precise solution.
These modules are arranged in hierarchy. They communicate with each other. A good structured design always follows some rules for communication among multiple modules, namely -
Cohesion - grouping of all functionally related elements.
Coupling - communication between different modules.
A good structured design has high cohesion and low coupling arrangements.




USM is mechanical material removal process or an abrasive process used to erode holes or cavities on hard or brittle work piece by using shaped tools, high frequency mechanical motioand anabrasive slurry. USM offers a solution to the expanding need for machining brittlmaterials such as single crystals, glasses and polycrystalline ceramics, and increasing compleoperations toprovide intricate shapes and work piece profiles. It is therefore used extensively imachining hard and brittle materials that are difficult to machine by traditional manufacturinprocesses. Thehard particles in slurry are accelerated toward the surface of the work piece by tool oscillating at a frequency up to 100 KHz - through repeated abrasions, the tool machines cavity of a crosssection identical to its own.

Figure: Schematic of ultrasonic machine tool

USM is primarily targeted for the machining of hard and brittle materials (dielectric oconductive) such as boron carbide, ceramics, titanium carbides, rubies, quartz etc. USM is versatilemachining process as far as properties of materials are con cerned. This process is ablto effectively machine all materials whether they are electrically conductive or insulator.

For an effective cutting operation, the following parameters need to be carefully considered:

•    The machining tool must be selected to be highly wear resistant, such as high-carbon steels.

 •    The abrasives (25-60 µm in dia.) in the (water-based, up to 40% solid volume) slurry
Includes: Boron carbide, silicon carbide and aluminum oxide.
The beauty of USM is that it can make non round shapes in hard and brittle materials. Ultrasonically machined non round-hole part is shown in Figure 11.

Figure: A non-round hole made by USM

Advantage of USM

USM process is a non-thermal, non-chemical, creates no changes in the microstructures, chemical or physical properties of the work piece and offers virtually stress free machined surfaces.
•    Any materials can be machined regardless of their electrical con ductivity
•    Especially suitable for machining of brittle materials

•    Machined parts by USM possess better surface finish and higher structural integrity.
•    USM does not produce thermal, electrical and chemical abnormal surface

Disadvantages of USM

•    USM has higher power consumption and lower material-removal rates than traditional
Fabrication processes.
•    Tool wears fast in USM.
•    Machining area and depth is restraint in USM.